Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Visual Flight Rules Samples for Students †

Question: Discuss about the Differences Of Visual Flight Rules. Answer: Introduction Visual Flight Rules are used to protect pilots without instruments in the aircraft from accidents, flying too high or under unclear weather conditions (Bergqvist 2016). The rules are used when there are no clouds obstructing the aircraft thus; the pilot spends most of the time looking outside the aircraft therefore controlling the aircraft using visual aid or references and not instruments. It is common for VFR to be applied by private pilots when flying in clear and visible weather conditions. Instrument Flight Rules on the other hand (IFR) are commonly used by pilots in unclear weather conditions and require the aid of instruments to control the aircraft when flying. Pilots can use the IFR without any visual assistance or reference (Taylor 2007). A pilot flying under VFR may choose the path he wishes. It may be an easy straight line from the point of start to the ending point or destination and under Visual Metrological Conditions. When a pilot cannot meet the Visual Metrological C onditions under the VFR, a pilot with good skills will be sought to fly using IFR equipped airplane. Theoretically, a flight can be performed without any visibility from the beginning to the end of the flight by using IFR. VFR governs aircrafts in visual metrological conditions while IFR governs aircrafts in instrument metrological conditions. Unlike VFR, IFR requires higher level of training and understanding of the rules and procedures (Robson 2010). The pilot is more refined in skill in Instrument Flight Rules Visual Flight Rules. The procedure used in IFR is purely controlled by flight instruments where the pilot is directed by air traffic control to fly from one destination to another and land safely (Pearson 2003). The pilot controlling aircraft by VFR does not need traffic control to direct him. He simply uses his eyes to control the planes position in reference to the horizon. The pilot lands safely by VFR and the instruments are only used as backup. Differences of VFR and IFR The pilot manning the aircraft under the Visual Flight Rules needs to have good visibility to enable him to go into the fog or clouds. He will also require minimal apparatus in the aircraft unlike IFR where he will be required to use instruments to enable him operate under bad weather conditions (Mccoll 2006). The pilot using Visual Flight Rules does not need specialized training, he only needs basic training to enable him fly the aircraft. Neither does he need supervision when manning the aircraft which is needed under IFR from the air traffic control. The pilot under VFR may choose to have a flight plan which in most cases is optional and is only used when the pilot goes missing. Instrument Flight Rules require an air traffic controller to maintain the separation of an aircraft from others. A thorough flight plan must be prepared in advance and used by the air traffic controller throughout the flight while keeping in contact with the radio. The pilot will receive a squawk code when handing over from one air traffic controller to another while giving information on what course and level to fly. The pilot needs IFR ratings that require some training and must meet the standards for IFR before handling any flight. Challenges of IFR When using the Instrument Flight Rules under the instrument meteorological conditions, the pilot must maintain a certain level of flight. The pilot must continually examine and scan the flight instruments and continue to make adjustments to maintain the flight level (Collins 2010). This situation becomes harder when the weather conditions are unclear and rough whereby the aircraft can bounce up and down making it challenging to maintain the flight level. Instrument Flight Rules, require that the pilot is assisted by a copilot in most cases. In the absence of a copilot, the task becomes more demanding and difficult (Australia 2013). Another challenge when using the Instrument Flight Rules is when the pilot has to keep communicating with air traffic control. The reason for this contact is because the pilot is unable to see outside window due to the rough weather conditions and therefore, relies on the air traffic control to assist the pilot keep away from the traffic that may be existent in the cloudy skies (Aarons 2013). As a result, it could turn out to be a burden to one pilot who has to manage the communication with the air traffic control and operation of the instruments. However, when there are two pilots in the cockpit, one may be scanning for traffic while the other pilot can focus on flying the aircraft. Navigating will also add to the pilots work load when flying in the clouds. The arrival of GPS has assisted pilots to navigate in the clouds reducing the work load needed to navigate using ground visual landmarks (Bergqvist 2016). However, when the GPS is unavailable, pilots prefer to use radio kind of navigation. This navigation requires using airways and radio beacons to navigate. The pilot may have a difficult time and additional work load when operating the radio alone. However, in multi-cockpit crew, the co-pilot can assist to track the airways. Radio based navigation is often used to flying approaches in which radio beacons are used. These radio beacons are more delicate in the instrument landing systems that require sustaining more accuracy on the glide path adding more work load to the pilot (Domogala, 2005). Conclusion Flying requires a set of rules to assist the pilot to operate the aircraft while on air. VFR and IFR rules assist the pilot to fly and land safely on the ground. In VFR flying, visual references assist a pilot to see the horizon and ground in order to maintain a straightforward flight level. At the same time, the pilot will require ground references to help him in navigation and avoidance of terrain. In IFR flying, the pilot depends on flight instruments to indicate altitude, position, attitude and any other information that may be relevant. It is crucial for the pilot to acquire the necessary skills (instrument rating) as he will require to fly by use of instruments only with very little or no aid of visual instruments. Apart from the specialized skill that the pilot will require to fly using the IFR, he will also require manpower through air traffic control that will direct him to land safely. The pilot under IFR, has additional workload because he has to man both the aircraft and the air traffic by use of six instruments that require frequent scans from the pilot. As IFR governs aircrafts in IMC, the pilot will require to be vigilante in attention and accuracy to enable him fly carefully. Pilots need proficiency in making decisions that determine the weather because VFR may be used in clear weather conditions that do not require the aid of instruments. IFR may be used in unclear and rough weather conditions. A flight may be necessary under VFR especially when the pilot goes missing. A co-pilot may be necessary in IFR to assist pilot with the instruments in the rough weather conditions. References AARONS, R. N. (2013). VFR into a mountain: sun glare contributes to disastrous illusion.Business and Commercial Aviation.109. AUSTRALIA. (2013).International Fleet Review: Sydney, Australia, 3-11 October 2013. [Sydney], [Department of Defence]. BERGQVIST, P. (2016). Rocking it VFR.Flying. COLLINS, R. L. (2010).VFR communications. Batavia, Ohio, Sporty's Academy. DOMOGALA, P. (2005). General aviation in Australia: the VFR pilots.Controller.44, 14-15. MCCOLL, K. B. (2006).Aviation meteorology unscrambled: for vfr and ifr operations certificates and ratings. [Place of publication not identified], Mccool. OATMEDIA INTERACTIVE LEARNING, OXFORD AVIATION TRAINING. (2008).Communications: VFR communications, IFR communications. Shoreham, Transair (UK) Ltd. PEARSON, D. C. (2003). "VFR Flight Not Recommended": a study of weather-related fatal aviation accidents (1995-2000).FAA Aviation News.42, 11-17. ROBSON, D., WADDELL, M., BUTTNER, H. (2010).Flight radio for pilots: VFR operations. Huntingdale, Vic, Aviation Theory Centre. TAYLOR, R. L. (2007).IFR for VFR pilots: an exercise in survival. Newcastle, Wash, Aviation Supplies Academic, Inc.

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